Q.4. PEOPLE IN HISTORY

This question tends to come in a format that requires you to know one of the revolutionary leaders from either America, France or Ireland in some detail. You will find information on some of the leaders involved on these pages:

The key points towards the top of the pages should provide you with enough information to get full marks on this section.

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Past questions

Ordinary Level

2008: Select one of the people described below. Write about that person. If you wish, you may use the hints to
help you in your answer. Write the title selected at the top of your account.
(i) A named revolutionary leader (in France, Ireland or America) during the Age of
Revolutions, 1770-1815.

HINTS: * Early life * Main events during the revolution
* Reasons for supporting the revolution * Later life and death.

2006: A named revolutionary leader (in France, Ireland or America) during the Age of
Revolutions, 1770-1815.

HINTS: * Early life and career
* Reasons for supporting the revolution
* Main events in the revolution
* Later life and death

Higher Level

2006: Select one of the people described below. Write about that person.
A supporter of a named revolutionary leader during the period, 1770-1803.

2005:  A named leader involved in a revolution (America, France or Ireland) during the
period, 1770-1815
.

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History@Banagher College, Coláiste na Sionna.

Published in: on May 26, 2010 at 11:35 pm Comments (0)
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George Washington

This content was created/compiled by Sorcha Dolan.


In Brief:

George Washington was a wealthy plantation owner from the British colony of Virginia. He fought in the French and Indian War before representing Virginia at the first Continental Congress. He was later chosen as the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army that defeated the British in the American War of Independence. He then went on to become the first American president.

Key Dates:

  • 1732 – Born in Virginia.
  • 1752 His brother Lawrence dies, leaving him the Mount Vernon plantation.
  • 1754 – Fights in the French and Indian war.
  • 1759 – Marries Martha Dandridge.
  • 1774 – Represents Virginia at first Continental Congress
  • 1775  – American War of Independence begins with Washington as Commander-in-chief of the Revolutionary army.
  • 1781 – Leads the Americans to an important victory at the Battle of Yorktown.
  • 1783  – Treaty of Paris is signed bringing the war to an end and accepting American independence.
  • 1787 – Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, during which the US Constitution was written.
  • 1789 – Elected first president of the United States.
  • 1793  Re-elected for a second term
  • 1799 George Washington dies at his Mount Vernon estate.

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George Washington

(part one)

[youtube]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YHxKPPkpXSM&NR=1[/youtube]

(part two)

[youtube]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xdmuh5uEVTU&feature=related[/youtube]

(part three)

[youtube]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TNVBlIn4jso&feature=related[/youtube]

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More information:



Early life

  • George Washington was born on February 22, 1732, to Augustine Washington and his second wife, Mary Ball Washington in Westmoreland County, Virginia.
  • His father died in 1743, and soon after George went to live with his half brother Lawrence at Mount Vernon, He trained to be a surveyor. This is a person who marks off people’s property and makes maps.
  • Lawrence died in 1752 of tuberculosis. George inherited the large Mount Vernon estate. He got married to Martha Dandridge in 1759

Leader of the continental army

  • George Washington was chosen to be the leader of the American army against the British because he knew the land so well.
  • The second continental congress formed the Continental Army and made George Washington a general.
  • On April 19, 1775, war broke out between the colonies and Great Britain.
  • Washington’s men really trusted him; they were Patriots who would never give up, as was he.
  • They used guerrilla warfare against the British.
  • General George Washington led the American revolutionary troops across the Delaware River in order to surprise the English and Hessian troops in the Battle of Trenton the day after Christmas in 1776.
  • By October 1781, the colonists were ready to trap the Redcoats. They attacked them and won the Battle of Yorktown. This ended the major Revolutionary War fighting. The Peace Treaty of Paris was signed on Sept. 3, 1783.

Involvement in politics.

  • Washington is the only American president not to have been a member of one of the nation’s two main parties.
  • He was A member of the Virginia house of burgess from 1759-1774
  • He was a member of Continental Congress from 1774-1775
  • He was the chairman of the Constitutional Convention from 1787-1788

George as president

  • He was elected president for the first time in early 1789 and again in 1792.
  • Both votes were unanimous.

    inauguration of Washington

  • John Adams was his vice-president.
  • His first inauguration took place in New York City, which was the first capital of the United States.
  • His second was in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, which was the capital from 1790 to 1800.

Later life.

  • Washington decided to return to Mount Vernon when his second term as President ended in 1797.
  • Washington enjoyed less than three years of retirement at Mount Vernon.
  • On December 14, 1799 he woke his wife and told her he was having trouble breathing.
  • Washington’s last words were, “Tis well.”

The death of George Washington

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Useful links:


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History@Banagher College, Coláiste na Sionna.

Background to American Revolution

1756  The British had continuously protected the colonists from attacks by both the Native Indians and the French. This eventually led to a full-scale war – the French and Indian War – with the British and colonists on one side and the French and Indians on the other.

French and Indian war

1763 The French and Indian War (also known as the Seven Years war) ends. The British defeat France and acquire the  French empire in North America.

1765  The Stamp Act is introduced which places a tax on all official documents in the colonies (e.g. wills, licences, college degrees, newspapers, playing cards etc.)

1765  The Quartering Act was introduced across the thirteen colonies demanding extra tax money to cover the cost of keeping the Redcoats (British army) in America to protect the colonists.

Protests (some leading to riots) took place across the colonies. The slogan ‘No taxation without representation‘ was used at these protests. The colonists felt that it was completely unfair to impose taxes on them when they didn’t even have the right to elect MPs to the parliament that was making these decisions.

A group called ‘The Sons of Liberty‘ was set up by Samuel Adams in protest at the taxes. They often attacked Tax collectors.

1766 The Stamp Act is repealed. However, a Declaratory Act reiterates Britain’s right to pass laws for and levy taxes on the colonies.

1767 The Townshend Act puts new duties on different goods in the colonies such as glass, paper and tea.

1770 Following riots, the British shoot dead five protesters while injuring seven more in what became known as the Boston Massacre.


1773  Even though the British repeal the Townshend Act, the Tea Act lead to the Boston Tea Party where colonists dumped imported British Tea into the sea in protest.

1774  New harsh laws – called the ‘Intolerable Acts’ by the Americans – were introduced. One of these laws instructed that Boston Harbour would be closed until compensation was paid for the tea destroyed during the Boston Tea Party.

1774  As anger grew towards the British, representatives of all thirteen colonies met as a kind of unofficial parliament at Philadelphia. This was called the First Continental Congress. One of those present to represent the colony of Virginia was a man called George Washington.

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Video Review of the background to The American Revolution

[youtube]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0rZKCegwnCU&feature=related[/youtube]

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History@Banagher College, Coláiste na Sionna.

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The American Revolution

Read on to get a general overview of the Revolution or Click on any of the areas to the right hand side to get more information

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Timeline: United States of America before Independence

A chronology of key events:

1565 – First permanent European settlement in North America – St Augustine, present-day Florida – founded by the Spanish. North America is already inhabited by several distinct groups of people, who go into decline following the arrival of settlers.

Detail of engraving depicting Battle of Trenton, 1776
Revolution: The Continental Army fought against British rule

1607 – Jamestown, Virginia, founded by English settlers, who begin growing tobacco.

1620 – Plymouth Colony, near Cape Cod, is founded by the Pilgrim Fathers, whose example is followed by other English Puritans in New England.

17th-18th centuries – Hundreds of thousands of Africans brought over and sold into slavery to work on cotton and tobacco plantations.

1763 – Britain gains control of territory up to the Mississippi river following victory over France in Seven Years’ War.

War of Independence

1774 – Colonists form First Continental Congress as Britain closes down Boston harbour and deploys troops in Massachusetts.

1775 – American Revolution: George Washington leads colonist Continental Army to fight against British rule.

1776 4 July – Thomas Jefferson’s American Declaration of Independence endorsed by Congress; colonies declare independence.

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History@Banagher College, Coláiste na Sionna.

Published in: on April 19, 2010 at 9:32 pm Comments (1)
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